Ayobami Kehinde


The Rottweiler’s ancestors were probably Roman drover dogs which is Rottweiler Dog, which were used to guard and drive cattle as they accompanied Roman troops on long marches. At least one of these marches led to southern Germany, where some of the people settled in southern Germany, where their dogs lived with them.

Throughout the following centuries, dogs continued to play a vital role as cattle drovers and also protected people from bears in what would become Rottweil (derived from red tile). These dogs were most likely mixed with Sennehund (Mountain Dog) strains.

Rottweil prospered and became a center of cattle commerce. The dogs that drove and guarded cattle became known as Rottweiler Metzgerhund (butcher dog). With the advent of trains, cattle driving was outlawed, so the Rottweiler found a new job. The butcher dogs were an integral component in the town’s industry until the nineteenth century.

A Rottweiler in a woody area

The Rottweiler was originally bred to be a herding dog. It was also used as a draft dog, but it was replaced by donkeys in the early 20th century because of its greater endurance. The breed suffered greatly after that point, and by 1905 there was only one female Rottweiler left in all of Germany. A group of people formed a club was formed in 1901 and set about to bring it back to life.

Two clubs were formed in 1907 to promote the breed as a police dog. They later merged in 1921, and by 1931 the breed arrived in America.

Rottweilers have been used in police, military, and rescue work. They recovered from their brush with extinction to become the second most popular breed in America by the early 1990s. They are now less popular than they were before but can still be found in many homes.

The Rottweiler is a large, sturdy dog with an imposing appearance. While there are no height or weight restrictions, this medium/large breed should appear neither too heavy nor too light – the correct weight should be in proportion to the body structure and frame. The coat is short and sleek. When people look at dogs they judge them first by their size. A medium to large breed, the Rottweiler stands 61–69 cm  at the withers for males, 56–63 cm for females, and the weight must be between 50 and 60 kg for males and 35 and 48 kg  for females

The behaviour of Rottweiler Dog

  • The Rottweiler Dog is a confident, bold, and strong dog that can be a great household pet.
  • They are self-assured in nature and tend to be stubborn.
  • The Rottie may be reserved or guarded toward strangers but overly assertive if their family is threatened.
  • They are a powerful breed that needs socialization, consistent training, and daily exercise.
  • Rottweilers are very protective of their families.
  • They can be aggressive towards other dogs and should be trained on how to interact with children.

Exercise and Training for the Rottweiler Dog

The Rottweiler Dog needs daily exercise, either in the form of long walks or jogs, or a vigorous game in a safe area. They also enjoy training lessons. They typically enjoy cool weather and may become overheated in hot weather. Their coat care is minimal, consisting only of occasional brushing to remove dead hair.

A Rottweiler dog during training

Rottweiler Dog Health challenges

If not fed or exercised properly, Rottweilers are prone to obesity. The consequences of obesity can be very serious, including arthritis, breathing difficulties, diabetes, heart failure, reproductive problems, and skin disease. Rottweilers are known for their susceptibility to osteosarcoma, a common cause of death in the breed. The reason for this is unknown, but it is suspected that Rottweilers’ large and heavy bone structure has something to do with it. All breeds of dogs can become infected with parvovirus; however, Rottweilers are more susceptible to parvovirus than other breeds.

A Rottweiler with health challenges

The Rottweiler is a dog that makes an excellent companion in the right hands. If socialized, trained, and supervised, he can be great for any home. However, if these things are not given attention to on a regular basis, the dog can become too much of a challenge for many households.


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The African glass catfish, Pareutropius Debauwi Fish is one of the Schilbeidae family, which consists of catfish. It is native to Africa, where it can be found in the Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon and Central African Republic. It faces no serious threats to its survival.

Pareutropius debauwi was named and described by George Albert Boulenger in 1900. Their common name is African Striped Glass Catfish, and they belong to the Glass Catfish family (Schilbeidae). This family includes about 9 genera and 46 species.This fish is found in Africa, specifically the Congo River Basin, Lake Tanganyika and Lake Mal. The common names for this fish are African Striped Glass Catfish and Leopardshark.

The smallest fish in the family is called Pareutropius debauwi. It was named after Rene de Bauw, a Belgian author. The word “Pareutropius” means “beside keel” and refers to the compressed body of this species. The genus name Pareutropius is made up of three (ancient) Greek words: Par means beside or near, Eu means well and Tropis means keel; a reference to the compressed body of this species.

The African Glass Catfish has a range that covers four different countries. It occurs in the Congo River basin and many other rivers in this region.

Pareutropius Debauwi Physical Appearance

  • The African Glass Catfish has a silver color with a black stripe down the flank.
  • Pareutropius Debauwi also has a dark line above its anal fin on its stomach as well as 4 beards on its snout.
  • They can reach a total length of 15 centimeters.
  • The difference between the sexes of a species is difficult to see.
  • Adult females are larger and bulkier than the males.
  • The difference is noticeable in a group of adults, but not in a single animal.
  • This can be seen more easily in young specimens than in adulthood.

Pareutropius with its physical Appearance

The African glass catfish has a long anal fin that is deeply forked. Its eyes are large while its mouth is small. The fins are transparent and it reaches about 10.4 cm long. It travels in schools and is found in Africa, Asia, Australia, Central America, Cuba, Europe, New Zealand and North America.

Pareutropius debauwi and Pareutropius buffei are often confused. The key difference between the two is that the buffei has a third black stripe along its side and dots on its caudal fin tips. However, P. debauwi has pointed edges to its caudal fin, while those of The tips of the caudal fin of  P. buffei are rounded.

Pareutropius Debauwi Habitat

Provide this fish with a spacious area that is long and contains densely planted areas, bogwood, rock around the edge, and some open swimming space toward the center. They do not like bright lighting so floating plants are desirable.

Aquarium can be provided for this fish with enough space for swimming and hiding. A long tank is best, as well as dense planting of bogwood and rock around the edges of the tank.

Pareutropius in its habitat

Carnivorous, bottom dwelling fish. The African upside-down catfish is a native of the Congo River Basin in Africa. It enjoys a temperature range of 77 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit and prefers water with good current flow and good amounts of vegetation. This fish may nibble plants if not fed sufficient amounts of food. This fish’s caudal fin is constantly moving, when resting or swimming. This fish may get caught in a net because of spines on the dorsal and pectoral fins.

Pareutropius Debauwi Feeding

Pareutropius debauwi are omnivores. They will eat both meaty foods and plant material, so you should give them a good mix of flakes, granules, frozen food, live daphnia or brine shrimp. Make sure that the diet also contains some vegetable matter.

Pareutropius Debauwi Breeding

The Pareutropius debauwi are egg scatterers who release their eggs between the plants. If you have some mash through which the eggs can fall but that the parents cannot get through, this certainly helps to protect the eggs. The eggs are usually deposited between the leaves by morning.

New breeding of Pareutropius debauwi species

The male immediately fertilizes the eggs. A single spawn can contain up to 100 eggs. The color of the eggs is whitish. The lifespan of Pareutropius is short. With proper care, they can live up to 5-8 years.


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The West African lungfish has the widest distribution of any species in the family, found across large stretches of western and central Africa. It is also found in northern portions of southern Africa, where it inhabits a variety of freshwater habitats including rivers, streams, ponds, swamps and other waterlogged environments.

The African lungfish certainly lives up to its name. These fish have barely changed over the last 400 million years, and are sometimes called “living fossils.” It lives in rivers and other waterways in Africa. The secret to its longevity is its adaptations—it has two lungs like we do, which means it can breathe air if necessary.  this species is able to survive in water or out.

The West African lungfish is found throughout Africa, specifically in the basins of Sahel as well as Guinea and Sierra Leone. This subspecies of the lungfish has two different subspecies; P. a. annectens is found primarily in the basins of Sahel, while the other subspecies, P. a. brieni is known.

A lungfish’s hibernation also includes a behavioral adaptation. A behavioral adaptation is a way an organism acts. Prior to hibernation, lungfish frantically burrow into the muddy ground as a means of protection. Their behavior as they dig allows them to create a safe place where they can survive over the long period of dormancy.

The African lungfish lives in the Mbali River of the Republic of South Africa. It has a five-chambered heart, which is an adaptation to its low-oxygen habitat. It also has three sets of gill arches on each side, instead of two as in most fish.

Lungfish do have gills, but they also have true lungs that enable them to breathe through their mouth. The lungfish must be able to access air in order to breathe, or else it will drown.

African Lungfish Physical Appearance

  • The African lungfish has a prominent snout and small eyes.
  • Its body is long and eel-like. It has two pairs of long, filamentous fins.
  • The pectoral fins have a basal fringe and are long, while its pelvic fins are about twice the head length.
  • In general, three external gills are inserted posterior to to the gill slits and above the pectoral fins.

African lungfish are long, slender fish with eel-like bodies. They have “fins” at their backs that allow them to propel themselves forward, as well as alternating “steps” that enable them to move in a hopping motion.

African lungfish with physical appearance

African lungfish have a long, dark-colored body that’s covered with black or brown spots. They have a lighter colored dorsal side. An African lungfish can reach up to 39 inches in length and weigh 10 pounds or less. They can live for  20years.

African Lungfish Habitat

African lungfish are obligate air breathers, meaning they must always have access to the surface for air. They are freshwater fish that live in riverbeds of Africa. During dry seasons, the water levels can become so low that African lungfish burrow into the sand and can hibernate for up to a year. Most African lungfish only aestivate. African lungfish can aestivate for up to a year.

lungfish dig deep into the mud, forming a safe and comfortable home. When ready to sleep, it wriggles around and creates a tunnel for air. During this state of suspended animation, lungfish take in no food or water and make no urine or waste.

African lungfish in its habitat

lungfish can tolerate water with little oxygen and will burrow themselves into mud for protection or to escape predators. They can do this because they have a unique ability to breathe air, which allows them to survive under low levels of oxygen.

African Lungfish Feeding

African lungfish are a part of the Class Sarcopterygii, the subclass Dipnoi, and order Ceratodontiformes. Lungfish species can range in size from 1 to 3 ft (0.3 M). They hunt for frogs, fish, mollusks, tree roots and seeds. The African lungfish can survive up to 3.5 years without eating.

African Lungfish Breeding

The lungfish is found in Africa and southern Asia. They are freshwater fish that live in burrows in the mud, with only their heads sticking out to breathe. Females lay their eggs in a nest they dig in areas of vegetation near water. Once the eggs hatch after about two weeks, the male guards them for up to two months until they can survive on their own.

lungfish during breeding


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The alewife fish breed, Alosa pseudoharengus, is a species of anadromous fish native to the northern Atlantic coast of North America, living most of its life in the sea but swimming upriver to spawn. Alewives are a type of herring and belong to the family Clupeidae.

The species was first reported from Lake Erie in 1931, Lake Huron in 1933, Lake Michigan in 1949, and Lake Superior in 1954. The spread of Alewives in the upper Great Lakes is thought to be enabled by warmer weather in the 1950’s

In some populations of alewife, the fish live entirely in fresh water. The alewife is most famous for its invasion of the Great Lakes by using the Welland Canal to bypass Niagara Falls. In the lakes, their population surged, peaking between the 1950s and 1980s to detriment of many native species of fish. To control them biologically, Pacific salmon were introduced.

In the Great Lakes, alewife became abundant mostly in Lake Huron and Lake Michigan. They reached their peak abundance from the 1950s through the 1980s. In order to survive, alewife required a food chain with no top predator. As a result of the lack of predators, they grew in number unchecked.

In the spring, adult alewifes move upstream to spawn. Fisherman catch them using dip nets in shallow areas of the river. They are used as bait for lobster traps during Maine’s spring lobster fishery.

Alewife fish breed

The fish has seen a decline in its population throughout much of its range, due to several threats. One major threat is the construction of dams and other impediments to migration. Dams have prevented alewives from migrating upriver to spawn, so their populations have declined. Other threats include habitat degradation, fishing, and an increase in predation by recovering striped bass populations.

Alewife Fish Physical Appearance

  • The Alewife Fish, Alosa pseudoharengus, is a small herring that is comparable in size to the American shad.
  • Alewives are often mistaken for river herring because they have similar characteristics.
  • The head of an alewife is broader than it is long, and its eyes are large with adipose eyelids (Wormuth & Wisner) fish with a dark upper side, bluish to greenish, and light sides with horizontal darker stripes. A dull black spot is located behind the operculum. Scales are easily rubbed off and form scutes on the mid.

Alewife with good physical appearance

Alewife have inconspicuous jaw teeth and no tongue teeth. The caudal fin is forked, with no adipose fin. They are visually similar to Blueback Herring, but Alewife has a peritoneal lining that is white, larger eyes, and a greater body depth than Blueback Herring. The freshwater gar grows up to 38 cm, but inland populations are usually less than 25 cm.

Alewife Fish Habitat

Alewife Fish are anadromous, living in salt and brackish marine areas as adults and returning to freshwater to spawn. Alewife can spend their entire life in freshwater, prefer marine environments where they can feed on smaller organisms, but they are able to survive in freshwater. They spawn in the spring, and then return to the sea.

Alewife playing in its habitat

Alewife Fish Feeding

The diet of the Alewife Fish is diverse, as it feeds on zooplankton. It also selects for the largest zooplankton in invaded water bodies and subsequently has altered the species composition of zooplankton in the Great Lakes where Alewife are abundant.

Economic Importance of the Alewife Fish

As a result of the alewife’s migration patterns, it was able to thrive in the upper lakes between 1931 and 1954. It faced little competition or predation during this time and became the most abundant species. Alewives are not of commercial value, however; their presence has caused costly sanitary operations when, periodically, millions of them die and wash up on  shorelines. It is a good fish.


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Fish disease symptoms are often apparent. Externally, you may observe symptoms such as strange behavior or cloudy eyes. Another external symptom is a loose-weight fish that does not eat, which may be linked to an internal parasite. If you recognize the symptoms in time, you can treat your fish earlier.

Dealing with fish disease involves knowing how to treat it. First, you need to identify what type of disease it is. You will find parasites, bacterial, fungal, or internal diseases. Each type has its own methods of treatment. The most obvious way to know if your fish has an internal parasite is weight loss. If your fish is eating but skinny, it has an internal parasite. Most internal parasites can be treated with medication

If you notice that your fish are sick or have parasites, it is best to start treatment right away. Many of these illnesses can be easily treated if caught early. The best way to treat any issues with your fish is to prevent them from occurring in the first place. By keeping the water free from dirt, you can prevent many of these fish illnesses.

Fish disease control starts with preventing the disease rather than treating it. Prevention of fish disease is accomplished through good water quality management, nutrition, and sanitation.

In order to understand your fish’s health, you need to observe their behavior and feeding habits. If any issues arise, treatment will be most successful if it is done early in the disease process when the fish are still healthy.

Fish should not be visible in the pond except at feeding time. Fish that are seen hanging listlessly in shallow water, gasping at the surface, or rubbing against objects indicate there may be a problem. Fish that are rubbing against objects are also behaving abnormally, which means they are probably irritated by something in the water.

Types of Fish Diseases

Parasitic Disease

Parasitic diseases in fish are most often caused by protozoa that live in the aquatic environment. This the most common type of fish diseases. There are a variety of protozoans that infest the gills and skin of fish, causing irritation, weight loss, and eventually death. It would be best to clean the whole tank as well as remove any eggs, larvae, or parasites from it.

Bacterial Disease

Fish have many diseases that are caused by bacteria. The bacterial disease is typically an inner infection that requires medicated feed containing antibiotics approved for use in fish. When a fish has a bacterial disease, it will have hemorrhagic spots or ulcers along its body wall and around its eyes and mouth. Bacterial diseases can be external, leading to erosion and ulceration.

These types of infections are often caused by poor water quality and a poor diet. Stress in your fish can lead to lower immune systems and allow any bacterial infection to set in. If your fish is suffering from a bacterial infection, you will likely see some common signs. These include swollen abdomen, this red spot on the body, Ulcers on the gills, Enlarged eyes e.t.c

Fungi Disease

Fungi diseases are more common in fish diseases than people realize, but they generally do not cause disease unless the fish is already ill with an external parasite or bacterial infection. Fungi can colonize damaged tissue of the fish if it is injured by handling or infected by any other type of parasite. This more commonly occurs on the exterior of the fish.

A fungal infection can damage organs in the fish’s body. Symptoms of a fungal infection include grey cotton-like growths on the skin, gills, and fins, and around the eyes. These infections are caused by unclean water conditions and dead organic material. The first thing to do to treat a fungal infection is to clean your tank fully.

Fish Diseases

Viral diseases

Another type of fish diseases are the Viral diseases, unlike bacterial diseases, cannot be distinguished from other illnesses without specific laboratory tests. The viruses are difficult to diagnose and there is no special medication to cure viral infections of fish.


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The Hovawart is a German herding breed. It originated in the regions of Harz and Black Forest, where it was used to guard estates. This large dog was originally created by German barons to protect their castles. The Hovawart dog was bred to assist with farm work and guard livestock.

Hovawarts fell out of favor after the Middle Ages. German Shepherds became more popular as guards and working dogs, eventually replacing Hovawarts completely by the beginning of the twentieth century.

Hovawart dogs were bred in Germany in the early 20th century. The breed was created by cross-breeding German Shepherds, Newfoundlands, Leonbergers, and other similar breeds until the original breeding type was achieved.

The Hovawart was first bred to be a dog of war. The breed’s skills proved useful in the Second World War, but only a few remained after the war. Enthusiasm for the breed remained and in 1947, Otto Schramm and some fellow enthusiasts formed a new club for Hovawarts which still exists today.

The Hovawart was recognized by the SV in 1930 but it wasn’t until after 1939 that any significant numbers were registered. With the outbreak of the war, many dogs were used for military purposes and perished or went missing. In 1945 there may have been as few as 20 dogs left in Germany.

The Hovawart is a large German working breed. Popular in the 15th and 16th centuries, this dog was used as a farm and yard watchdog to protect property from poachers, thieves, and trespassers. This dog’s name came from Middle High German words “Hova,” meaning yard or farm; “Wart to the watchman.

Hovawart Dog Physical Appearance

The Hovawart is a medium to large dog. Males are 63–73 cm, and females are 58–65 cm at the withers. The weight of a male is about 30–50 kg, and that of female ranges from about 10 to 20 kg. They have black, black, and gold, or blond coats.

They are large, strong dogs. They have extremely strong legs and hindquarters and a well-muscled chest. The feet end in compact pads that allow the dog to move through any terrain with ease. The head is large and powerful, with teeth that meet in a sharp razor bite. The ears droop down on the dog’s head.

Hovawart displaying its physical appearance

Hovawart Dog Behavior

The Hovawart Dog is a protective and loving dog. They make great watchdogs, as they are generally reserved towards strangers. This breed makes a great family pet since they are fully devoted to their families. This breed requires consistent training from an early age on up to ensure that it grows into a well-mannered adult dog.

The Hovawart Dog Breed is also known to have a stubborn attitude. However, harsh or disciplinary training methods are not recommended. This form of training often backfires and causes more problems than it solves. They respond well to positive reinforcement.

Hovawart showing its behaviour

Hovawart Dog Training and Caring

The Hovawart Dog breed loves vigorous physical and mental activity. They are outdoor dogs that enjoy swimming, tracking, and much more. They require at least one hour of vigorous activity every day.

These dogs do not like to be bored because they are active all the time. Their nature can be harmful toward other dogs if they are not properly socialized. Hovawarts are known for their long hair, but they do not have a thick undercoat.

This means the breed only needs occasional brushing to stay clean. However, seasonal shedding will require more grooming and baths. These dogs grow strong nails quickly, so owners should regularly check them and trim them back if needed. It is important to check their ears also in order to avoid infection.

Hovawart undergoing training and caring by doing exercise

Hovawart Dog Health

The Hovawart breed is generally very healthy with no known breed-specific health problems. They can, however, develop hip dysplasia, which is common to large breeds. Hypothyroidism is also sometimes noted in these dogs. The average lifespan of a Hovawart is 10 to 14 years.


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The Bedlington Terrier Dog originated in the village of Bedlington, Northumberland. It was bred to be a companion for miners and was originally known as Rodbury Terriers, Rothbury Terriers, or Lambs because Lord Rothbury liked them so much.

The breed used to be known as “gypsy dogs” because they were used by gypsies and they were originally bred for hunting rats and other vermin near coal mines. This is due to their black and tan coloring, which was helpful.

The breed became increasingly popular in the late 1800s, but by 1900 it had nearly disappeared due to changes in livestock breeding. This decline was reversed during the 20th century, however, and the Bedlington Terrier has become increasingly popular since 1970.

Bedlington Terrier’s history began in the late 1800s when they were brought into the show ring and into homes of the higher class. At one time, liver-colored dogs were popular; however, in more recent years, blue dogs have become more popular. The breed’s fluffy appearance draws many admirers.

The Bedlington Terrier is a small dog that resembles a lamb. It also looks like a miniature Scottish Deerhound. George Shields, the author of the book “Manual of Dogs”, stated that dogs bred for a show should have the spirit of a thoroughbred racehorse.

Bedlington Terriers are described as being a very powerful dogs. They have powerful swimming skills, comparable to those of water dogs such as the Newfoundland, and are noted for being very quick and having high endurance. They love snow and can achieve a Husky-like turn of speed on the ice, using their powerful noses as a plough.

Bedlington Terrier Dog Physical Appearance

The Bedlington terrier is a small, compact dog with a rounded head and almond-shaped eyes. Their lips fit closely together and they lack flews (extra folds of skin). The back is arched and the body should be slightly longer than in height.

A male Bedlington can be from 16 to 17.5 inches high, while females must be between 15 and 16.5 inches high and they must weigh between 17 and 23 pounds each. The Bedlington terrier is a unique-looking dog that has a light and springy gait.

Bedlington stretching out its physical appearance

Its coat is a mixture of hard and soft hair standing off the skin, which provides it with protection as well as an outstanding appearance. Bedington dogs are a breed of dog that comes in three colors: blue, liver, and sandy. They may also have tan points (a patch of color on the dog’s body). Their fur forms a top knot on their heads. The fur is nonshedding and has minimal odor.

Bedlington Terrier Dog Behavior

Bedlington Terriers are known to be very active and playful. They love to fight, but will most likely get into a scuffle with another dog of the same sex more than anything else. Bedlingtons are also very intelligent and tenacious dogs, which is why they can do well in shows or earning their obedience titles.

The Bedlington Terrier is extremely energetic even in water, so much so that it matches the swimming speed of Newfoundland. Bedlingtons are not easily intimidated by other dogs, and they can be scrappy fighters when forced to defend themselves.

They will chase small animals outdoors, but usually, get along with them indoors. The Bedlington Terrier is one of the softer terriers in appearance and feel, while also being friendly. They are very family-oriented and protective of those they love.

Bedlington displaying its behaviour by lying on the pebbles stone

Bedlington Terrier Dog Training and Caring

The Bedlington Terrier is a lively, confident dog that loves to run and play. The breed needs plenty of exercises each day, either in the form of long walks or vigorous romps. Bedlingtons are active but not hyperactive.

They are friendly with people and other dogs but may chase small animals that run away from them.  Early socialization and puppy training should be given to this breed on time. Bedlington terrier needs its coat brushed every one or two weeks to remove loose hair, plus professional grooming to shape the coat every other month.

The shed hair tends to cling to the rest of the fur rather than falling off.

Bedlington undergoing training and caring

Bedlington Terrier Dog Health

Bedlingtons are generally a very healthy breed, except for some health problems such as copper toxicosis, hip and elbow dysplasia, hypothyroidism. They live for about 12 to 14 years.


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The Tosa Inu Dog Breed is a Japanese breed of dog. It originated in the early Meiji period (1868–1912) from the native Shikoku-Inu, The Tosa Inu is a very rare breed of dog that originated in Japan. The first Tosa Inu was bred in the second half of the 19th century.

They are considered to be very intelligent and strong. These dogs were crossed with European breeds such as the Old English Bulldog in 1872, English Mastiff in 1874, Saint Bernard and German Pointer in 1876, Great Dane in 1924, and Bull Terrier.

The Tosa was bred specifically to be a larger, more powerful dog for dogfighting competitions in Japan between 1924 and 1933. During this time period, there were said to have been more than 5,000 Tosa breeders.

In Japan, there is a strong tradition of breeding Tosa. The breed has been called “Sumo wrestler of the dog world” and is known for its agility and power. The best-known and highest-ranked Tosa Inu was celebrated as a national hero.

Tosa Inu Dog Physical Appearance

The Tosa varies in size. The Japanese-bred dogs tend to be about half the size of those bred outside the country, and generally weigh between 36 and 61 kilograms. Non-Japanese breeders have focused on larger dogs that weigh from 60 to 90 kg and stand 62 to 82 cm at the withers. These dogs have muscular bodies and strong backs.

Their chest is broad and their tails are thick at the base and thin out towards the end. They have a short, hard, dense coat that comes in red, tawny, apricot, or black with tabby markings. This dog’s head is big, broad, and square with a large nose.

Its short ears are thin and hang loosely on both sides of its cheeks. The chest has some white patches on it while the front feet have small white markings.

Tosa dog showing its physical appearance

Tosa Inu Dog Behavior

  • The Tosa Inu is a large, but peaceful dog.
  • It has an instinct to protect its family and will viciously attack any strangers who come nearby. But it needs an authoritative owner to train it properly, as the Tosa Inu can be aggressive towards other animals or people.
  • The Tosa Inu takes a long time to grow up. It usually takes almost 4 years for them to be fully matured.
  • They must not be kept together with dogs of the same size, sex, or temperament. This dog has a high pain tolerance and is independent-minded.

Despite the athleticism and agility of this breed, he is known to be powerful. In order for a Tosa Inu to be well-bred, socialized, trained, and under control at all times, he must have been well-bred by a reputable breeder.

Tosa Inu displaying its behaviour

Tosa Inu Dog Training and Caring

Tosa Inu dogs need to be walked for at least an hour a day. The walks are the best place for them to interact with other animals, exercise, relax, and get mental stimulation. These dogs also enjoy short training sessions.

This dog lives in a spacious house with a yard big enough for their daily walks. The Tosa Inu is a large fighting breed that needs exercise to stay healthy. Without it, they would become stressed and display behavioral issues.

They are not a high-energy dog that demands extreme amounts of exercise but needs moderate amounts daily. Take them out for long walks or jogging every day. Tosa Inu has a coat that is short and stiff.

Their brushing needs are minimal, just once or twice a week to remove dead hair and dirt. Bathing every two or three months can suffice, but they are very active dogs outside so it might be more frequent depending on where they play.

Tosu Inu ready for training and caring

Tosa Inu Dog Health

The Tosa Inu is a healthy dog breed. Some of the conditions that can affect the Shiba Inu are hip dysplasia, heatstroke, cancer, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). They average 9-10 years of life.


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The Shetland Sheepdog, often known as the Sheltie, is a breed of dog that originated in the Shetland Islands of Scotland. The breed was originally known as the “Shetland Collie” but was renamed because this name caused controversy amongst other collie enthusiasts.

Shetland Sheepdogs are unlike many other miniature breeds in that they were not developed simply by selectively breeding the Rough Collie for smaller and smaller sizes. The original sheepdog of Shetland was a Spitz-type dog, probably similar to the modern Icelandic Sheepdog.

This dog was crossed with mainland working collies brought to the islands, and then after being taken to England.

Since the 1960s, many dog breeds have been created by crossing the Rough Collie with other breeds. This includes crossing it with the extinct Greenland Yakki, King Charles Spaniel (not to be confused with the Cavalier), and Pomeranian, and possibly Border Collie. The original Shetland sheepdog was replaced by Border Collies for herding.

This small dog is a devoted family pet and can be quite vocal. They are also called known as “shadows” due to their high level of trust with their owners. They are incredibly loyal dogs that love attention. The Shetland Sheepdog is a small, agile dog.

They are longer than they are tall and have a smooth gait and covering the ground. Their coat is double with an undercoat that is short and dense and an outer coat that is straight and harsh. Their expression is often gentle, intelligent, and questioning.

They have the agility, speed, endurance, and intelligence to be efficient herding dogs.

Because of the low amount of melanin in the Sheltie fur, they tend to have a white or cream coat with dark blue or black spots. Blue merle Shelties may have blue eyes or one brown and one blue eye, but all other Shelties have dark-colored eyes.

Their expression should be that of alertness with a gentle. They are often very good with children. They carry their tail down low, only lifted when alert, and never carried over the back.

Shetland Sheepdog Body structure

They have a double coat, which means that they have two layers of fur. The long, rough guard hairs lie on top of a thick, soft undercoat. The guard hairs are water-repellent while the undercoat provides relief from both high and low temperatures.

Shelties normally weigh between 5 and 11 kilograms. Shorter and stockier, males tend to be taller and heavier than females. Males can be as tall as 41 centimeters at the shoulder while the range for females is between 30-38 centimeters.

A Shetland displaying its physical appearance

Shetland Sheepdog Exercise and Training

Though Shetland Sheepdogs do not require extensive exercise like other breeds, they still need to run and play regularly. Otherwise, they may become bored and bark or chew on things excessively.

A dog’s happiness is dependent on having mental stimulation. The most effective way to stimulate their mind is through obedience training, agility, herding, or games that challenge them mentally. Even if it means just fetching balls and finding hidden toys.

A Shetland dog ready for training and exercise

Shetland Sheepdog Behavior

These dogs have quick reflexes that can make them overly reactive to loud noises and sudden touches. Indeed, quite a few individuals are high-strung, startle easily, and don’t do well in an environment with frequent tension, loud voices, or too much rough-housing. They can be overwhelmed by the herky-jerky mannerisms of small children.

They are easy to train if you have a calm voice and a light hand on the leash. They are sensitive, so they need only verbal corrections and become defensive or wilted if you jerk them around. Praise, gentle guidance with your hands or leash, and food rewards are the way to go with Shelties.

The Shetland Sheepdog is friendly with other dogs and cats, but maybe aloof with strangers. Because of their reserved nature, they need extensive socialization to become confident around people.

A Shetland lying on the grass with calm behaviour

Shetland Sheepdog Health Challenges

Shelties are known to be a healthy breed, but this is not always true. They often face health issues such as epilepsy, bleeding disorders, heart disease, joint disorders, eye diseases, and endocrine system disorders.

 A shetland dog lying down due to the health concern


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The English Coonhound Dog is a breed of coonhound that originated in the Southern United States. It descends from foxhounds brought over by settlers during the 17th and 18th centuries, along with other breeds. The breed was recognized as the English Fox and Coonhound in 1905, renamed to just English Coonhound in 1966.

The American Foxhound’s heritage can be traced back to foxhounds brought to the United States by European settlers in the 17th and 18th centuries. It shares a common ancestry with all other coonhounds, except for the Plott Hound. The breed was specifically bred over time to better adapt to these new conditions.

The foxhound was bred in England in the 17th century to hunt raccoons by day and foxes by night at a time when hunting by day with hounds was illegal. It is seen as an “American” dog because it was imported to the US, where it earned its name.

English Coonhound Dog Physical Appearance

The English Coonhound Dog is of medium height and weight, with a coat that comes in three colors: red, blue, and tricolor tick pattern.  The English Coonhound dog breed is predominately red with some variations.

The most common coloration for this breed is red, which refers to the pattern of ticking. However, there are other variations such as bluetick and tricolored or tricolored with ticking. The breed has a high prey drive and is typically used for “coon hunting” but also has treeing skills. Overall, this breed is generally healthy.

The American Kennel Club describes the average male Coonhound at 22–27 inches (56–69 cm) at the withers, with females being slightly smaller at 21–25 inches (53–64 cm). The weight of a Coonhound should be in proportion to the dog’s height.

The American English Coonhound has an average lifespan of 11 to 12 years. A specific type of hound was developed to hunt raccoons. These dogs have long, floppy ears and droopy lips.

A coon displaying its physical appearance

English Coonhound Dog Caring and Training

The English coonhound is a breed of dog that originated in the United Kingdom. They are highly energetic and will run after their prey until they catch it. English Coonhounds require regular exercise to keep in prime condition but are not usually recommended for households with small pets.

If your American English Coonhound doesn’t get enough exercise, it can become bored, depressed, frustrated, anxious, or hyperactive and the result will make these dogs become destructive.

These dogs are a large breed that requires a lot of exercise and attention. The dog needs a healthy, balanced diet to help support its active lifestyle. Its coat must be brushed weekly to keep the dog’s body sleek and shiny.

Trimming the nails should be done on a regular basis, as well as bathing and cleaning. Socialization and training should start in puppies in order to learn certain behaviors. This should be important for the rest of their lives.

English coon dog ready for Training

English Coonhound Dog Behavior

These dogs are very affectionate and intelligent, as well as being excellent hunters. The English Coonhound has been bred to have a pleasant personality that will allow it to live with other dogs.

They can also be watchdogs, as their vocalizations are loud and distinctive. The American English Coonhound is a curious breed that will sniff and eat items left out on the counter. This especially applies to chewing gum, bones, and other non-food items.

The American English Coonhound also will bark at loud noises, such as those from firecrackers or thunder. The dog is generally a friendly dog and does well around children of all ages. They do best in homes where they are the only pet and get plenty of attention from their owners.

English Coonhound Dog Health Challenges

Due to their large size and deep chest, the American English Coonhound breed is susceptible to bloat which can be a life-threatening illness. Other health issues often seen in this breed include hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia, ear infections, and eye disorders. Their ears should also be checked regularly for signs of infection.

An English coon with health issue


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3 Little-Known Facts About Saint Bernard Dog
3 Little-Known Facts About Saint Bernard Dog
3 Little-Known Facts About Saint Bernard Dog